Electrical Control System
An electrical control system is a physical interconnection of devices, made up of an input, a process, and an output. The devices influence the behavior of other devices and systems. The input and output variables to the system are signals.
Input devices, otherwise known as sensors, gather information, respond, and control a physical process by using electrical energy. This energy is in the form of an output action. The input signal is referred to as the “cause” and the output signal is referred to as the “effect”, which is the consequence of the cause.
Electrical systems operate either on discrete-time signals (DT) or continuous-time signals (CT). A DT system, the signals are a series or sequence of signal values defined in certain time intervals and A CT system, the signals are continuous over time.
There are two different types of control systems.
- The closed loop systems can be complex in terms of designing a stable system. The output will have an effect on the input to maintain a desired output value.
- The open loop control system is simpler, easier to build, however can be inaccurate and unreliable. The outback does not feedback to the input to correct variations so the outback is not always corrected automatically.
Types of Controls
There are several different types of controls.
- Manual control – A person is needed. There are no automatic controls.
- Semi-automatic control – A person is needed to start, than a sequence of operations follow automatically.
- Automatic control – A controller which monitors the system replaces the need for a person to operate.
- Local control – An attachment such as a level or hand wheel is used as a means of control.
- Remote control – The unit is mounted and connected to an actuating device by means of power transmission through electrical linkages.
- On/off control – The regulating unit is controlled by an on or off switch.
- Step-by-step control – The action of the regulating unit occurs in steps instead of being continuous.
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